Balanced healthy growth of child’s head: how to measure circumference, size and shape

Every parent eagerly awaits the milestones in their child’s life, from the first smile to the first step. But there’s another aspect of growth that often goes unnoticed, yet is equally significant: the balanced growth of a child’s head. This might seem like a trivial detail, but it’s a crucial indicator of a child’s overall health and neurological development.

Factors Influencing the Shape of a Child’s Head

Have you ever noticed that a newborn’s head might look a tad different than those cute baby pictures you’ve seen online? This is because the bones of a baby’s skull remain unfused during intrauterine development, allowing them to shift and adapt during the journey through the birth canal. This natural process can result in an elongated head shape or even a birth hematoma. But fear not, as these changes are temporary. Within a few weeks post-delivery, the baby’s head begins to regain its natural shape.

Now, let’s dive a bit deeper into the science behind it all. The size and shape of a child’s head are influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. During the early stages of development, the brain grows at a rapid pace, which in turn influences the expansion of the skull. By the age of one, a child’s brain reaches about 90% of its adult size! This rapid growth means that the head size of infants and toddlers can provide valuable insights into their neurological development.

Here are some fascinating scientific tidbits about the size of a child’s head at different ages:

  • Newborns: At birth, the average head circumference ranges from 33.5 cm to 37.5 cm. The head might appear larger in proportion to the body, but this is completely normal.
  • By Six Months: By this age, the average head size increases to about 43 cm. This is a period of rapid brain growth, so don’t be surprised by the noticeable change!
  • One Year Old: Celebrating their first birthday, most toddlers will have a head circumference of around 46 cm. It’s amazing how much they grow in just a year!
  • Two Years Old: Slowing down a bit, but still growing, the average head size is about 49 cm by the age of two.
  • By Five Years: As they prepare for school, the average head circumference of a child is approximately 52 cm.

It’s also worth noting that while genetics play a significant role, other factors like nutrition, health during pregnancy, and even the way a baby sleeps can influence the shape and size of their head. For instance, babies who consistently sleep on one side might develop a slightly flattened head on that side, a condition known as positional plagiocephaly. But don’t worry too much; this is often temporary and can be corrected with some simple changes in sleeping position or, in some cases, with the help of a pediatrician.

In addition to the natural factors mentioned above, the shape of a child’s head can also be influenced by genetics, gestational nutrition, nursing care, and environmental factors. So, the next time you’re gently cradling your baby’s head or playfully measuring it with a soft tape, remember that you’re holding a marvel of nature, a testament to the intricate dance of biology and environment.

Decoding the Parameters of a Child’s Head

When it comes to understanding the dimensions of a child’s head, parents might come across various terms like circumference, girth, size, and volume. Let’s demystify these:

Circumference, Girth, and Volume: These terms essentially refer to the measurement of the widest part of the head. It’s a crucial indicator of the overall growth and development of the brain and skull.

Head Size: This is a handy parameter, especially when you’re out shopping for a cute hat or cap for your little one. It’s determined based on the head circumference and matched with specific age-related standards.

Understanding the Shapes of Babies’ Heads

When you first lay eyes on your newborn, you might be surprised by the shape of their head. But rest assured, these variations in head shape are completely normal and often temporary. The shape of a baby’s head can provide insights into their development and health. Let’s delve into the science behind the different shapes and how to distinguish them:

Oval (Cephalic)

This is the most common head shape for babies, especially those born via C-section. When viewed from above, the head appears slightly elongated from front to back. It’s the ideal shape, indicating that the baby didn’t experience much compression during birth.


Some babies have a perfectly round head. This shape is less common than the oval but is still considered normal. It’s often seen in babies who have more room in the womb or those who were positioned well during the later stages of pregnancy.

Cone-shaped (Molding)

This is a common head shape for babies born through a vaginal delivery. The pressure exerted during passage through the birth canal can cause the baby’s flexible skull bones to overlap, resulting in a cone-like appearance. This shape is temporary and usually resolves within a few days to weeks as the bones shift back to their original position.

Flat Spots (Positional Plagiocephaly)

Some babies develop flat spots on one side of their head or at the back. This can occur if a baby consistently sleeps or lies in one position. The baby’s soft skull can flatten against the mattress, crib, or other surfaces. It’s essential to provide “tummy time” when the baby is awake and to occasionally change the baby’s head position during sleep to prevent or correct this.

Asymmetrical Shape (Deformational Plagiocephaly)

This occurs when one side of the baby’s head appears flatter than the other, causing the forehead to seem more prominent on one side. It can result from the baby’s position in the womb or consistently sleeping on one side. With early intervention, such as repositioning and physical therapy, this condition can often be corrected.

Long and Narrow (Scaphocephaly or Dolichocephaly)

This head shape is characterized by a long and narrow appearance. It can be a result of the baby’s position in the womb, especially in cases of multiple pregnancies where space is limited. It can also develop postnatally if a baby frequently lies on their back without much variation in head position.

It’s essential to remember that a baby’s skull is incredibly flexible and malleable during the early months of life. This flexibility allows the baby to pass through the birth canal and also accommodates the rapid brain growth that occurs during the first year of life. Most variations in head shape resolve on their own as the baby grows, but if parents have concerns, they should consult with a pediatrician. In some cases, a helmet or other interventions might be recommended to help shape the baby’s head.

Importance of Measuring Head Circumference

Regularly measuring a child’s head circumference is more than just a routine check-up procedure. It’s a window into the child’s neurological and overall health. A consistent growth pattern in head circumference, in line with age norms, is a reassuring sign of healthy development.

However, deviations from the norm, either an unusually large or small head circumference, can be early indicators of potential health issues. For instance, a head circumference that’s smaller than the age-sex norm might indicate microcephaly, a condition where the brain doesn’t develop properly. On the other hand, a larger than normal head size could be a sign of macrocephaly, which might be benign or indicate underlying issues.

It’s worth noting that premature babies have a different growth trajectory than full-term babies. Their physical dimensions, including head circumference, will be smaller during the initial months but should gradually catch up as they grow.

Monitoring Head Growth at Home

While regular pediatric visits are essential, parents can also play an active role in monitoring their child’s head growth. Here’s a simple guide to measuring your child’s head circumference at home:

  1. Ensure the child is in a comfortable position, either lying down (for infants) or sitting/standing (for older kids).
  2. Use a soft measuring tape and wrap it around the child’s head, ensuring it passes over the brow arches and the most protruding part at the back of the head.
  3. Take multiple measurements to ensure accuracy and note down the average.

Frequently Asked Questions

How often should I measure my child’s head circumference?

For infants, it’s recommended to measure monthly during the first year. As the child grows older, measurements can be taken during regular health check-ups.

Why is my baby’s head shape different after birth?

This is a natural occurrence due to the flexibility of the baby’s skull bones, allowing them to navigate through the birth canal. The shape typically normalizes within a few weeks.

How can I ensure my child’s head grows healthily?

Regular check-ups, a balanced diet, and monitoring head growth are key. Any concerns should be discussed with a pediatrician.

Ensuring a Bright Future

As guardians of our children’s future, it’s our duty to ensure they grow up healthy and strong. By keeping a vigilant eye on their physical growth, especially the head circumference, we can ensure any potential issues are detected and addressed early. Remember, a healthy child is a happy child, and there’s no greater joy for a parent than seeing their child thrive.